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阅读理解遇到生词怎么办?不要总是跳过去呀!


我们在做阅读理解的时候,经(zong)常(shi)会遇到一些生词,我们的老师也说,遇到生词不用怕不会影响做题,但有时候也会感到很恐惧啊!毕竟因为这个词曲解文意怎么办?况且题目中还有让解释词义的题,这种情况下,就要找一些方法了!下面介绍的几种方法非常简单实用!

一、类属法

即通过类属来推测词义。如:

◆Bananas, oranges, pineapples, coconuts and some other kinds of fruit grow in warm areas.

是不是pineapples, coconuts 都不太熟悉?其实和前边的一联系,这都是水果大家族嘛!(科普一下:分别是“菠萝”和“椰子”)




二、推理法

即根据文章的前后语境推出生词的词义。如:

◆That museum is so immense that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in one day.

既然一天之内看不完所有的展品,那么 immense 的意思应该是“很大”了。

◆Everyone agreed that the woman in the photo was gorgeous. It was easy to see why she had won the beauty contest.

既然“她在选美比赛中获胜”,说明她“很美丽”(gorgeous)。

三、列举法

即通过对文章所列举的事物来猜测生词的词义。如:

◆Children like such creatures as dogs and monkeys.

像 dogs 和 monkeys 之类的 “creatures”,显然creatures 的意思应是“动物”。

◆In your spare time, you may look through any of these periodicals: Time Magazine, News Week, or The New Worker.

periodical 是生词,但根据其后所列举的例子,我们可以推测出它的意思可能是“期刊”或“杂志”。



四、构词法

即根据前缀、后缀、复合、派生等构词知识判断生词的词义。如:

◆Overwork may cause diseases.

前缀 over- 的意思是“过分的,过量的”,故 overwork 的意思应为“工作过度”。

◆There was a dissatisfied look in the manager’s eyes.

satisfied 的意思是“满意的”,前缀 dis- 的意思是“不”,故 dissatisfied 的意思应该是“不满意的”。

五、对比法

即根据文章前后的对比关系确定生词的词义。如:

◆He had been getting better, but during the night his condition deteriorated .

句中的 but 表明 deteriorate 应该与 get better 的意思相反,即“恶化”。

◆In many countries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth.

上文说两个经济上的极端,那么下文中 penury 应与 great wealth 相对,即表示“贫困”。

◆Mrs. Smith is loquacious while her husband is the silent type.

while 表对比,意为“而”,所以 loquacious 应是 silent 的反义,即“多嘴的”。

◆If you agree, draw a circle; and a cross if you dissent.

说明:既然画圈表示同意,那么画叉便是“不同意”(dissent)。



六、同位法

同位语是对所修饰词语的进一步说明和解释,若对所修饰的词语不熟悉,可通过其后同位语的“说明或解释”来确定其词义。如:

◆His father is an expert in phonetics, the study of the sounds of language.

同位语 the study of the sounds of language 表示 phonetics 的意思应该是“语音学”。

◆Jean was born with spina bifida, a birth illness that damages the spine (脊骨).

同位语 a birth illness that damages the spine 表明了spina bifida 是一种病,一种对脊骨有损害的病。

七、释义法

即根据文章中所提供的释义关系来确定生词的词义。如:

◆They described him as a loon, or a mad man.

句中的or 是对loon的解释,即loon与a mad man 同义,即表示“疯子”。

◆It will be very hard but also very brittle, that is, it will break easily.

句中的 that is 表明 it will break easily 是对 brittle 的解释,从而猜测出其意为“脆”。

◆The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 500 yuan a year.

定语从句 who looks after sheep 表明 herdsman 的词义为“牧人”。

◆There are three kinds of snow. One kind is a fluffy snow that is somewhat dry and feathery?

定语从句 that is somewhat dry and feathery (有点儿干、像羽毛似的) 表明 fluffy snow 的意思可能是“鹅毛大雪”。



八、常识法

即根据普通常识推测生词的词义。如:

◆It’s said that Bill Gates is the most affluent person in the world.

根据常识,Bill Gates 为世界首富,所以 affluent 可能是“富有的”。

◆As a scientist, Edison is very famous for his contrivances.

根据常识,Edison为发明大王,他应因“发明”而闻名于世。